A Class of Electromagnetic Simulation Techniques for Design of mmWave Massive MIMO Antennas and Optical Communications for 5G Wireless
The high data rates required for the 5G standards leads to the need for greater bandwidths. The available bandwidth in the microwave spectrum is not sufficient to satisfy these requirements. This has moved the required operating frequency bands up into the millimeter wave and optical range for the 5G communication systems. The FDTD method is very efficient and accurate 3D rigorous technique for both of the millimeter waves and optical frequency bands. An obvious limitation of the numerically rigorous techniques, however, is their ability to solve large problems that place a heavy burden on the CPU memory and time.
For the above reason we present different FDTD techniques which we have developed for solving large antenna arrays and large electromagnetic structures. These techniques are the domain decomposition FDTD (DDFDTD) which is developed for dividing the large arrays into smaller sub arrays and then consider the coupling between sub arrays using efficient numerical techniques, the serial parallel FDTD (SPFDTD) which is based on applying the DDFDTD and the parallel FDTD using MPI functions along two orthogonal directions, the modified 3D 2nd order in time fourth order in space FDTD (M3d 24) which is a low dispersion FDTD technique that enable using low resolution FDTD grid and consequently reduce the required memory, and the FDTD hybrid “-Yee” with subgridding.
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 Hany E. Abd El-Raouf, Raj Mittra, “A Novel Domain Decomposition Finite Difference Time Domain Scheme Including Multiple Reflections,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 4, 53–64, 2008.
 Raj Mittra, Hany E Abd-El-Raouf, and Neng-Tien Huang, “A Serial-Parallel FDTD Approach for Modeling of Coupling Between Two Large Arrays”, Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), Special Issue on Phased Adaptive Array Antennas, Invited paper, ACES Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3, November 2006, pp.267-275.
 H.E.Abd El-Raouf, E.A.El-Diwani, A.Ammar and F.El-Hefnawi, “A Low Dispersion 3D Second-Order in Time Fourth-Order in Space FDTD Scheme ( M3d 24),” IEEE Trans.Antennas Propagat., Vol.52, No.7, pp.1638-1646, July 2004.
 H.E.Abd El-Raouf, E.A.El-Diwani, A.Ammar and F.El-Hefnawi, “A FDTD hybrid “” scheme with subgridding for solving large electromagnetic problems,” Journal of the Applied Computational Electromagnetic Society (ACES), March 2002 issue, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 23-29..